Biotechnology, Second Edition – Chapter 12: DNA Technology and Genomics

Biotechnology, Second Edition, approaches modern biotechnology from a molecular perspective, incorporating an increasing biochemical understanding of genetics and physiology. Authors Clark and Pazdernik introduce basic concepts and develop more advanced applications. This comprehensive text provides an accessible, practical guide to the field, containing primary research articles that illustrate key concepts and applications. This highly visual and comprehensive textbook is a great resource for students, researchers, and professionals involved in biotechnology research.

Modules

DNA-technology has opened new frontiers in research and development. For example, recombinant DNA technology allows for modular study of proteins. Individual domains of a protein can be removed and studied separately, using the cDNA sequence for these purposes. Another way to study proteins is through fusion with other proteins. One example of such a fusion protein is the GST-fusion protein, which can be efficiently purified and used to study how it functions.

Genomics combines genetic analysis of complete genomes and recombinant DNA technology. Genomic sequencing can aid in the discovery of hereditary diseases, identify proteins that might be targets of therapeutic drugs, and even uncover evolutionary relationships. DNA profiling has become an essential tool in the battle against hereditary diseases. It is also useful for paternity analysis and comparison of ancient DNA to modern organisms. The use of genomics is changing the way we study genetics.

Genomic DNA technology has improved the manufacture of antibodies and proteins. This technology vastly improves over previous methods of protein production. This module also covers the history and development of therapeutics derived from DNA. CHO cells were the first mammalian cell lines to be used for gene transfer. However, other cell lines proved to be acceptable hosts as well. As a result, several recombinant proteins were produced. The first FDA-approved therapeutic protein, tissue-type plasminogen activator, was developed in CHO cells.

Today, DNA technology has also revolutionized agriculture. It has improved crop production, made vaccines, and made growth hormones for farm animals. It can also produce rare substances in large quantities for human and animal use. The first transgenic human insulin was approved by the FDA in 1982. The advent of GMO food is a result of DNA-technology. With its benefits, it has also forged new alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture.

Recombinant DNA procedures make bacteria into factories for foreign proteins. This is particularly useful for large-scale protein production, and also for valuable proteins for medical research. Similarly, genes for proteins from human are also manufactured commercially. These genes are inserted into animal genomes and secreted in animal milk. In this way, DNA technology allows researchers to discover new ways to combat diseases. It has also made vaccines, which are harmless versions of pathogens.

Molecular genetics has facilitated many fields of research. Discoveries in the field have led to breakthroughs in many fields. DNA technology and genomics has made possible the diagnosis of disease before it manifests itself. This technology is the foundation for clinical diagnostic technology. And because of its rapid advancement, it is the most convenient way to make genetics research faster and more affordable than ever. It is a valuable asset to all of mankind, and its many benefits are outlined in Modules in DNA technology and genomics.

Techniques

Genomic sequencing is a technique that has a huge potential to reveal gene function. Using high-density microarrays of gene sequences, researchers can look at the expression of large numbers of genes at once. Microarrays can contain 400 or more spots, and some technologies use many more. They may contain tens of thousands of probes per gene. Gene chips, which are made from different tissues, convert RNA into cDNA with a fluorescent label and then hybridize them to these arrays. This allows scientists to measure global changes in gene expression.

Recombinant DNA technology is another technique used to examine DNA. The first step is to isolate DNA from a cell by running it on an agarose gel. Then, DNA fragments are placed into each well. Then, voltage is applied to the sample via electrodes. The DNA fragments move towards the positive electrode and then separate by size. These techniques are sometimes used to produce transgenic plants or animals. The creation of transgenic animals opens up the possibility of specific gene therapies for human diseases.

The development of recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the biological field, opening up exciting new avenues for therapeutic products. Recombinant DNA technology enables scientists to introduce new genes into an organism and decrease or block the expression of its endogenous counterparts. Recombinant DNA technology is also used to develop new diagnostic methods and produce biotechnology drugs. While the technology is still evolving, it has already made huge strides in treating diseases.

Another method of genetic analysis, known as functional genomics, is called Gibson assembly. It allows scientists to assemble genomes and designer organisms by combining multiple gene sequences. The Sanger DNA sequencing method, which is based on PCR, is also used for genomics. DNA polymerase extends the primer and a small pool of DNA. In this method, one DNA sample represents a gene, making it much easier to compare two genomes and study the relationship between different organisms.

Another method of DNA manipulation involves polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. PCR is a technique that produces a large number of copies of a target DNA sequence in a test tube. The process can be quick and easy, ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Learn the basics of PCR by reading Lessons on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis

Recombinant DNA is another technique in the field of genetics. It enables scientists to isolate one gene or segment of DNA and recombine the DNA molecules from different sources. This technique is also called chimeric DNA, as the recombined DNA molecules may contain material from different species. They use palindromic sequences to transfer the foreign DNA into new host cells. The technique has been a breakthrough in genomics and DNA technology.

Applications

The development of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to perform genome-wide genetic analyses. With genomics, we can study all the genes within an organism, enabling us to look for hereditary diseases, find therapeutic drug targets, and compare genomes of different species. We also can determine how similar and different organisms are evolutionarily. And while we still don’t know exactly how each gene functions, it does provide a tremendous amount of information for researchers.

One of the most important applications of recombinant DNA technology is in producing novel enzymes. These enzymes are now available in specific productions. Another great achievement in the field is the production of microbial strains through specific engineering. For example, certain strains of fungi have been genetically modified to reduce toxic materials. Lysozymes are very effective agents against bacteria and fungi in the food industry.

Another major application of recombinant DNA is in medical research. It has helped produce many products, including recombinant human insulin, growth hormone, blood clotting factors, hepatitis B vaccine, HIV test kits, and golden rice. Researchers have also developed DNA-based therapeutics for retinoblastoma, a malignant tumour of the retina that’s hereditary.

There are countless other applications for recombinant DNA. The vast array of therapeutics available thanks to recombinant DNA technology have revolutionized many areas of medicine. The development of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to engineer plants, animals, and microorganisms with genetically modified genes. Recombinant DNA technology is currently the cornerstone of most biotechnology pharmaceuticals.

Using restriction endonucleases, DNA can be placed in a DNA vector. These enzymes are extracted from bacteria and recognise specific DNA sequences. The enzyme cuts the DNA flat. The DNA backbone is then stretched and joined together using a DNA ligase. And if the DNA fragments are too large to fit into the well, they are separated by size. This is a crucial step in creating designer organisms.

With the help of recombinant DNA, scientists have successfully edited human cells and mice. These techniques have also been successfully applied to manipulate bacteria and fruit flies. Genetic engineering has many applications in medicine, agriculture, and research. Because it’s so easy to manipulate DNA in this way, it’s now possible to manipulate the genomes of many organisms. In addition to treating genetic disorders in humans, it can be used in animal experiments, for example.

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